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Heat Treatment

QForm V8 includes a model of phase transformations during heat treatment of steels developed by GMS Bernau Company (Germany). Thus, the heat treatment module in QForm V8 is a result of joint efforts of QuantorForm and GMS Bernau.

The primary function of this module is the simulation of phase transformations in the following chain of operations:

3_ht_module 

Simulation of phase transformations is based on the test data interpolation: thermokinetic diagrams of austenite decomposition (Continuous Cooling Transformation diagrams) stored in the database. These diagrams allow for both the influence of temperature-time parameters of heat treatment and chemical composition of the processed steel on the transformation of phases. Schematically, this influence is shown below.

1_ht_module

All steels are grouped into categories depending on their chemical composition. For each group an interval is set within which the content of a particular chemical element may vary. Precise content of chemical elements in steels may be set directly in simulation. What is most important is that this value does not fall outside of the intervals of a selected group. For example, chemical composition of steels from Group # 2 (carbon steels where content of carbon is < 0.22%) varies within the following intervals:

# 2

C, %

Si, %

Mn, %

Cr, %

Cu, %

Mo, %

Ni, %

Al, %

V, %

Ti, %

Nb, %

B, %

from

0.004

0.2

to

0.22

0.68

1.60

0.40

0.30

0.06

0.30

0.07

0.10

0.08

0.05

0.0005

GMS Bernau Company can supply a separate PDF-file with a list of all groups of steels indicating intervals of the range of chemical composition, as well as cooling rates and temperature of austenization.

 

The program will show the following results of simulation:

  • phase distribution: ferrite, pearlite, bainite, martensite, retained austenite
  • hardness and tensile strength distribution
  • workpiece volume change as a result of phase transformations
  • heat production at phase transformations
  • cooling rate
In this example end quenching simulation in QForm and hardness distribution in a workpiece are shown.

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